Counterinsurgencies in Iraq and Afghanistan As insurgencies developed in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States was forced to adopt a counterinsurgency COIN approach for which it was largely unprepared. The second involves an effort to transform random observations of tank vulnerabilities into a systematic program to integrate operational experience into the design and production processes. Recommendations Include specific causal factors for civilian casualties in training. Rather, it presents an opportunity to increase the value of JCOA analyses and products. Analysts choose methodologies to overcome known obstacles to describing and explaining behavior and physical phenomena, and the conduct of research and experimentation may stimulate refinements and improvements of methods.

This journal accepts manuscripts and letters to the editor in Japanese. Second, empirical evidence must be developed within institutionalized processes and procedures that enable and reward criticism of research tactics and methods, rules of evidence and inference, and research findings. Therefore, any lessons identified would concern issues tangential to the primary assumption, rather than whether the primary assumption described correctly the reality of coalitional planning coordination, and hidden agenda and incentives. Collectively, these dedicated efforts bore fruit: Personnel potentially involved in joint fires that could include drone aircraft as an engaging or ISR platform should be trained in these factors and how they can be mitigated, to help reduce civilian casualties while maintaining mission effectiveness. Lessons learned and best practices developed from this finding do not alert commanders preparing to deploy to the complexity and obstacles in coordinating multi-national forces and to the difficulty of accomplishing desired goals.

jcoa case study

In both attacks, U. Together, the state and process descriptions show that it is feasible to reorient the JCOA research tradition. The I2O report observed that ad hoc structures and processes were created to fit IO functions into division HQ staffs and to coordinate IO and kinetic operations.

jcoa case study

The first concerns Operation Torch. A state description models the structures and processes under examination or joa criteria to identify them; it is a description of the world as sensed. I believe this situation results from the way JCOA has changed means—collecting, aggregating, analyzing, and disseminating joint lessons learned—into the ends of analysis.


These incidents resulted in a significant outcry from nongovernmental organizations NGOs and the media; the shooting of a vehicle containing Italian journalist Giuliana Sgrena and her rescuers during an EOF incident further increased visibility of this issue.

jcoa case study

Illustrative draft TSO finding: Propositions should be selected from a summary of themes and concepts, and hypotheses prepared about what we should expect to find and to not find at each level of analysis. The ALA study examined how lessons on critical theater issues—such as reducing and mitigating civilian casualties—were identified, passed, and implemented in the road to deployment for Afghanistan.

Snow, Science and Government New York: Several researchers working in that research program have been awarded Nobel prizes in economic science, including Herbert A.

Praeger Security International, To them, research meant searching through the works of Aristotle. The MIT Press,pp.

Joint and Coalition Operational Analysis (JCOA) Drone Strikes Civilian Casualty Considerations

The turmoil accompanying the disestablishment of JFCOM, the reassignment of some JCOA divisions and functions to other DoD components, and impending budget and manpower limits should not prevent taking initial steps to create knowledge. The TSO report did not reference, critique, or correct the theme of trusted agents developed in the earlier studies.

Iraq Major Combat Operations During major combat operations in Iraq, the ability to distinguish the enemy from the civilian population was simplified by the fact that the enemy was the Iraqi military.

Counterinsurgencies in Iraq and Afghanistan As insurgencies developed in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States was forced to adopt a counterinsurgency COIN approach for which it was largely unprepared. In addition, this process could likely benefit from best practices and lessons for civilian casualty classification processes from Afghanistan.

Inthe first original article, which described the anatomical characteristics of Japanese knee joints, was published. The next srudy of this paper outlines the key findings of the study, as detailed in the ALA final brief.


The Journal of the Japanese Clinical Orthopaedic Association

JCOA analysts conceive and design studies around the formulation of joint lessons learned, and prepare briefings and reports to present these lessons. Where appropriate, apply Afghanistan civilian casualty reduction best practices to operations outside declared theaters of armed conflict. In two other memoranda about military revolutions, Marshall noted the national goal of leading the world in accomplishing intellectual tasks related to analysis of links between operational concepts and organizational innovation, but did not examine the reciprocal relationship between operational-level analyses and the growth of knowledge.

Yet, Ordnance Department leaders did not ask themselves whether data from operations would be relevant to improving vehicle performance and the design and production processes.

Dempsey, commanding general, U. Progress in describing and explaining how structures and processes affect operations requires an interdisciplinary approach. Inthe Journal of the Japanese Clinical Orthopaedic Association became a peer-reviewed journal.

Eisenhower did not report what happened at headquarters below his own,32 so he did not set conditions for an operational-level research tradition by deliberately examining issues appropriate to interaction between the commander and subordinate operational commanders.

An initial set of themes and concepts to organize research on operational-level problems includes the following: Starbuck, The Production of Knowledge: They have to oversee and manage staff structures and processes studg propose lines of operation and calculate and compare impacts, jcpa, and tradeoffs of many policies and programs. But his insight was remarkable. First, it led to the calculation of a coefficient for lift and drag equations more accurate than the Smeaton coefficient.