A cult could thus be any autonomous social group that is capable of large scale concerted action. In order to do this, we present a triangular model of dual relationships among security, resilience, and non-security politics. Securitisation Studies supplement traditional ways of studying security by problematising the concept of security. From International System to International Society: Falun Gong represented a system-crisis; it provided an alternative system of social organization. The requirements of securitization are:

The power of different speakers depends on their symbolic capital, i. All political systems securitise their core values, as they are necessary for the continued existence of the system. Sometimes politicians or government actors do things in secret, without public legitimizing. Responses to Dunne and Adler. New Frameworks for Analysis.

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This requires that the method of inquiry should be based on pragmatics the study of the ways in which meaning is derived from the interaction of utterances with the contexts in which they are used and not purely on semantics the study of meaning or universal linguistic rules.

The possibilities of civil society and state bureaucracies to resist securitization moves of elites in various types of Asian political orders, has also been examined within the securitization studies literature Curley and Wong Even though colours are a natural phenomenon, their meanings are societal products, and Critical Security and Chinese Politics: It is only through this social process that an issue becomes a question of security concern; even though many phenomena can jeopardise the existence of something, issues receive the status function of national security only through a process of social construction.


The draft combines the micro-level analysis of securitisation with a macro-level model of totalitarianism cf. Chinese Securitisation Article Three: Email address for updates. Concluding Discussion The Tiananmen incident was part of the power-struggle between the leftist and the pragmatist factions within the Party in the mid-seventies.

Policing Across National Boundaries. A Chromatology of Security: Andersen and Can E. A profound fear of chaos and disorder among the political elders is a defining aspect of the Chinese political system Pye The protests of began in a similar vein: This kind of low-key approach seems to be targeted more at the international community, so that it will dissetration keep bringing the incident up in discussions on China.

European Journal of International Relations 22 1, Discourse is not limited to verbal or written texts, but can include any type of symbols that contribute to meaning making. Introducing Colour to Visual Security Studies more. Armouries were broken into and arms seized for factional warfare. Before the securitization process can be handled, its causal processes have to be understood. The structure of complex speech units is due to their complex tasks.

How does securitisation work in the context of a non-democratic political system?

Juha A Vuori | University of Helsinki –

Tiananmen ja kiinalaisen aktivismin jua more. Accordingly, the criteria set for allowed forms of technology have been reduced from theMaoist plural must-nots to the single mustnot: This allows us to assess what these values are in situations where they are used as the basis for legitimating extraordinary policies.

juha vuori dissertation

The requirements of securitization are: He derived a lesson from Poland: Preparatory Deng lists the reasons and evidence as vuoei the accuracy content of C. There is also always debate on how public authority proper goals and means should be used.


After two months of protests, the movement was labeled as a counterrevolutionary riot Chen and the military was ordered in to clear the square of the demonstrators, which led to hundreds, even thousands of deaths and about ten thousand injured, both on the side of the demonstrators huha the military.

A warning can either be a directive56 or an assertive about the state of affairs which is presupposed not to be in the interest of the hearer represented in the propositional content of the utterance.

The theories of identity frames and securitization are combined to produce a framework that can be used to analyze and conceptualize rhetorical interaction between protest movements and authorities. The legitimacy of politicians and the system are closely linked.

juha vuori dissertation

However, as the balance between power and morality Carr calls for suggests, not all security speech is meant to be deceptive, securitisers can themselves genuinely believe the arguments they are making and their arguments may be valid. I am also lucky to call many of these people my friends: Falun Gong practitioners also did not accept the brand fissertation received from the government.