As the APFs are not identical and work independently therefore power capacity enlargement is easier and the system reliability is also high. The DG Inverter with storage then supplies the active fundamental power only and the shunt part of the UPQC compensates the reactive and harmonic power of the load in islanding mode. Further, the output of FLC controls the switch in the inverter. Active power transfer during grid connected or microgrid mode — possible iv. The IRP theory [26], which is valid for both the steady-state and transient operation and is characterised by relatively simple computation, has been used to generate the reference current. Therefore, any disturbance or distortion in the supply side could degrade the performance of the system. Good personal narrative essay topics.

Properly cited research paper. Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. For example, to compensate Both indirect and direct current control techniques are proposed in [, , – ] to mitigate the voltage transients in transition mode. Weighted Average Method This is a method that cannot be used for asymmetrical output membership functions and can be used only for symmetrical output membership functions. Note that for a power factor given load and voltage sag requirement to determine the magnitude and constant phase angles of V pen to maintain the load voltage constant at its rated valued.

Control — easy mode — may not be possible iii.

This situation will be very serious in a power system and leads to imbalance in the system and may cause severe power quality issues in the overall distribution system. Applications of some advanced mathematical tools in general, and wavelet transform in particular, in power quality are also applied. CPDs can find significant application in integrating solar and wind energy sources to the grid.

The transformer winding ratio is pre-determined according to the voltage required in the secondary side of the transformer which is generally kept equal to the supply voltage to allow the DVR to compensate the full supply voltage sag [50].


A large value of error E indicates that the given system is not in the balanced state. The confrontation in improving the power quality has become a promising area of research amongst power system and power electronic engineers and researchers.

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Due to the operation of the UPQC, the shunt AF current ica compensates the reactive power and the harmonics of the load; thus the source current follows the sinusoidal reference currents.

The seamless reconnection also depends on the accuracy and performance of the synchronization method. The vector diagrams in Fig 2. Modeling and simulation of custom power conditioners happen to be inevitable as power electronics-based equipment in use for augmenting power quality in distribution networks [ 3 ].

Rview this mechanism, ants will eventually find the shortest path. Table 3 shows the comparison of THD produced by various literaturw. In such rfview, C in 11 plays an important role, while the role of E is diminished.

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It will also work with a higher performance and reduced power loss. The controller is defined in such a way that the amplitude and frequency of the reference voltage signal will droop as the load current increases.

literature review on upqc

From 7 and 12. Similarly, a fully digital controller based on the TMSF DSP platform which is implemented for the reference generation as well as control purposes is proposed [ 13 ]. For H-bridge single phase system, the detailed switching dynamics has been studied in [34].

literature review on upqc

This algorithm is most simple and involves only a few steps for finding challenging solutions even in complex domain. Therefore, to handle a larger portion of teview power, increasing its capacity is essential. The basics for the selection of capacitor size has already been described in sections 2. Table 2 summarizes the voltage sag mitigation of various methods.


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Defuzzification As a plant usually requires a nonfuzzy value of control, a defuzzification stage is needed. Artificial intelligence and advanced mathematical tools for power quality applications: The shunt APF continues to operate, as shown in Fig 5. Each harmonic conductance is dynamically adjusted according to the corresponding harmonic voltage distortion of the active filter at the installation point in response to an increase or decrease of nonlinear loads or variation of resonant frequency in the power system.

Defuzzification As a plant usually requires a nonfuzzy value of control, a defuzzification stage is needed. Immediately, the Sw4syn pulse is activated and the reconnection algorithm starts generating active pulses as the phase and amplitude differences start to be within the required limits.

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Fuzzification Membership function values are assigned to the linguistic variables, using seven fuzzy subsets: The switching is carried out successfully within the limiting condition as shown in Fig 5. Similarly, results in a lagging current in the conducting switch S4. Fuzzy logic and its features used in this research are presented in Section 4.

UPQC is a recent power electronic module which guarantees better power quality mitigation as it has both series-active and shunt-active power filters APFs. In this o Max-Min method is used.